GRADERS AND SCRAPERS
In the Naval Construction Force (NCF), graders and
scrapers are essential tools used in the construction of
airfields, ammo supply points (ASPs), roads, and site
work. The primary purpose of the grader is to cut and
move material with the blade for final shaping and
finishing. The scraper is a large earthmover with the
capability of digging, loading, hauling, dumping, and
This chapter covers the
characteristics and basic principles of graders and
Graders are multipurpose machines used primarily
for general construction and maintenance of roads and
runways, moving large amounts of materials laterally by
side casting. Additionally, the grader can be used for
crowning and leveling roads, mixing and spreading
materials, ditching and bank sloping, blade mixing
asphalt materials, snow removal, and scarifying.
The grader is a rubber-tired hydraulically operated,
for all grader functions. The steering system,
moldboard, and scarifier are hydraulically controlled.
Although the grader, at times, must be hauled to and
from jobsites, the grader has an advantage over other
heavy equipment because of its capability to travel over
the road under its own power.
NOTE: When hauling a grader with a tractor-
trailer, ensure the height of the grader cab clears all
A variety of makes and models of graders are used
in the NCF. Each operator is responsible for reading the
operators manual to obtain detailed information about
each make and model.
The basic grader consists of a prime mover and a
grader mechanism. The principal parts of a grader are
single-engine unit. The single engine provides power
shown in figure 10-1.
Figure 10-1.Principal parts of a motor grader.