A tool kit for nearly every rating in the Navy is not
complete unless it contains an assortment of files.
There are a number of different types of files in
common use, and each type may range in length from
3 to 18 inches.
Files and rasps fall into the abrading tool family.
You only need the half-round file and the half-round
rasp for ordinary work. The most useful sizes are 6, 8,
and 10 inches.
Files are graded according to the degree of
fineness, and according to whether they have single-
or double-cut teeth. The difference is apparent when
you compare the files in figure 5-24, view A.
Single-cut files have rows of teeth cut parallel to
each other. These teeth are set at an angle of about 65
degrees with the center line. You will use single-cut
files for sharpening tools, finish filing, and draw
filing. They are also the best tools for smoothing the
edges of sheet metal.
Files with crisscrossed rows of teeth are double-
cut files. The double cut forms teeth that are
diamond-shaped and fast cutting. You will use double-
cut files for quick removal of metal and for rough
Files are also graded according to the spacing and
size of their teeth, or their coarseness and fineness.
Some of these grades are pictured in figure 5-24, view
B. In addition to the three grades shown, you may use
some DEAD SMOOTH files, which have very fine
teeth, and some ROUGH files with very coarse teeth.
The fineness or coarseness of file teeth is also
influenced by the length of the file. (The length of a
file is the distance from the tip to the heel, and does
not include the tang (fig. 5-24, view C). When you
have a chance, compare the actual size of the teeth of
a 6-inch, single-cut smooth file and a 12-inch,
Figure 5-24.--File information.
single-cut smooth file; you will notice the 6-inch file
has more teeth per inch than the 12-inch file.
TRIANGULAR files are tapered (longitudinally)
on all three sides. They are used to file acute internal
angles and to clear out square corners. Special
Files come in different shapes. Therefore, in
triangular files are used to file saw teeth.
selecting a file for a job, the shape of the finished work
MILL files are tapered in both width and
must be considered. Some of the cross-sectional
shapes are shown in figure 5-24, view D.
thickness. One edge has no teeth and is known as a