most of the downward thrust. The carriage slides on
them off daily with an oiled rag to help preserve their
the outboard V-ways (1 and 4), which, because they
are parallel to way number 3, keep the carriage
aligned with the headstock and the tailstock at all
times--an absolute necessity if accurate lathe work is
to be done. Some lathe beds have two V-ways and
The headstock carries the headstock spindle and
two flat ways, while others have four V-ways.
the mechanism for driving it. The headstock is
For a lathe to perform satisfactorily, the ways
similar to an automobile transmission except that it
must be kept in good condition. A common fault of
careless machinists is to use the bed as an anvil for
greater number of speed changes. On some lathes the
driving arbors or as a shelf for hammers, wrenches,
gears are shifted hydraulically and others are manual.
and chucks. Never allow anything to strike a hard
Our examples show the manual type of gear shifters.
blow on the ways or damage their finished surfaces in
A speed index plate, attached to the headstock, shows
any way. Keep them clean and free of chips. Wipe
the lever positions for the different spindle speeds.
Figure 6-2.--Rear view of lathe.