Chapter 8ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
(6) The corrective action taken to stop, con-
tain, and prevent recurrence by the reporting ship
or activity, if any;
(7) The assessment of the help required (con-
tainment equipment and/or clean up equipment).
The OSC must also (1) designate an on-scene
commander (OSCDR), (2) notify the personnel
concerned with cleaning up the pollutant, and (3)
take charge at the scene until the arrival of the
The OSCDR reports directly to the OSC and
assumes the responsibility for directing the man-
power and equipment at the scene of the pollu-
tion, and utilizes all available resources to
quickly remove the pollutant and to restore the
environmental quality. Upon notification of a
navy spill in local waters, the OSCDR takes im-
mediate action to contain or isolate the spill by
utilizing duty section personnel or personnel
assigned to a spill recovery team and their
The OSCDRs responsibility is to determine
the source of the spill, contain it, commence
cleanup operations, and eliminate it.
If the navy spill occurs after working hours
the OSCDR executes the recall bill, if necessary.
When oil is spilled, it triggers a series of ac-
tions that are common to all spills and which have
been categorized into the following operational
1. Discovery and notification.
2. Evaluation and initiation of action.
3. Containment and countermeasures.
4. Recovery, mitigation, and disposal.
5. Cleaning and repositioning equipment.
6. Documentation and cost recovery.
Spill phases do not necessarily follow in sequence,
but may and generally do, overlap. Figure 8-1
shows this overlap and summarizes some of the
actions in each phase of an oil spill. Spill control
operations can last anywhere from a few hours
to several weeks and individual spills do not re-
quire the same degree of implementation for all
the operational phases.
Phase IDiscovery and Notification
Discovery of an oil spill usually results from
one or more of the following: (1) casual observa-
tion by personnel or the public, (2) result of
monitoring and surveillance program, or (3)
report made by the spiller. Whatever the mode
of discovery, all Navy related spills must be
Phase IIEvaluation And
Initiation of Action
Upon notification and inspection of the spill,
the Navy OSCDR must evaluate the following:
(1) magnitude and severity of the spill, (2) poten-
tial impacts of the spill including hazard to life
or property, (3) available response time, and (4)
capability of local resources to handle the spill.
Based upon this evaluation, the OSCDR should
initiate local containment action and notify the
Navy OSC. The OSC may either alert Regional
Response Teams (RRT) or request assistance for
spills which are beyond the local Navy response
unit capability. The OSC will also evaluate the
effectiveness of measures applied to the spill and
maintain a detailed log of spill related activities.
Spill samples should be taken as soon as possible
after the spill and analyzed in accord with accept-
able procedure. Data should be recorded for
possible future use.
Phase IIIContainment And
Containment and countermeasures are
positive actions taken to limit the continued
spread and migration of the spill and to stop the
flow at the source. These steps are the first cor-
rective actions to be taken, and should be initiated
as soon as possible after a spill is discovered.
1. The isolation and evacuation of the spill
area to protect life or health.
2. The Shut off activities at the source of
the spill. These may range from simple valve
realinement to extensive salvage operations. Rup-
tured tanks, for example, may be sealed with
chemicals which foam in place and form reliable