desired grade, as shown in figure 15-30. These stakes
are marked with GRADE, or GRD, and a crowfoot
mark even with the desired grade.
Basically, the difference in cut, fill, or on-grade
stakes is as follows:
. Cut stakes indicate a lowering of the ground or
. Fill stakes indicate raising the ground or eleva-
. On-grade stakes indicate the ground is at the
desired grade and does not need a cut or fill.
After a survey of a project has been completed and
the stakes are set and marked, the required amount of
Figure 15-31.Reference information found on a offset stake.
work needed to complete the job is determined by
using the information on these stakes. Since this
information has to be used often during construction
and the original stakes can be destroyed or covered up
by carelessness or inexperienced operators, it is
necessary to document this information.
To prevent the loss of reference information, you
should transfer the required information from the
stake located in the immediate area of construction to
a new stake. Set this stake far enough away so that it
will not be damaged or destroyed by equipment being
operated in the construction area. This new stake is
called an offset stake and is identified by the symbol
OF or an O (fig. 15-31).
You should note the number of linear feet that
separates the offset stake from the original reference
stake. This is written on the offset stake below the OF
or within the circle, followed by the amount of cut or
fill, in feet, which may be required. A stake marked
means that the stake is offset 35 feet
from the centerline stake and that a cut of 1 foot is
required to attain the desired final grade.
The difference in elevation must be noted on the
offset stake. The symbol, representing the stake from
which the information was originally transferred, is
also noted on the offset stake. If the offset stake was
offset from a shoulder stake, the symbol would be SH
instead of ~.
The amount of cut or fill, if any, must be noted on
the offset stake. However, because of existing terrain,
this information on the offset stake may not be the
same as that on the original stake. In figure 15-32, you
can see that the offset stake reads for a cut to be made
to reach a desired elevation at the center line, while a
Figure 15-32.Difference in elevation between the offset stake crowfoot and desired grade at center stake.