Chapter 1 Introduction to Fluid Power

CHAPTER  1 INTRODUCTION TO FLUID POWER Fluid  power  is  a  term  which  was  created  to include  the  generation,  control,  and  application of  smooth,  effective  power  of  pumped  or compressed fluids (either liquids or gases) when this  power  is  used  to  provide  force  and  motion to mechanisms. This force and motion maybe in the form of pushing, pulling, rotating, regulating, or  driving.  Fluid  power  includes  hydraulics,  which involves liquids, and pneumatics, which involves gases.  Liquids  and  gases  are  similar  in  many respects.  The  differences  are  pointed  out  in  the appropriate  areas  of  this  manual. This  manual  presents  many  of  the  funda- mental  concepts  in  the  fields  of  hydraulics  and pneumatics.  It  is  intended  as  a  basic  reference  for all   personnel   of   the   Navy   whose   duties   and responsibilities  require  them  to  have  a  knowledge of  the  fundamentals  of  fluid  power.  Conse- quently,  emphasis  is  placed  primarily  on  the theory of operation of typical fluid power systems and components that have applications in naval equipment. Many applications of fluid power are presented in this manual to illustrate the functions and   operation   of   different   systems   and   com- ponents. However, these are only representative of the many applications of fluid power in naval equipment. Individual training manuals for each rate provide information concerning the applica- tion   of   fluid   power   to   specific   equipment   for which  the  rating  is  responsible. A  brief  summary  of  the  contents  of  this training  manual  is  given  in  the  following paragraphs: Chapter 2 covers the characteristics of liquids and  the  factors  affecting  them.  It  also  explains the  behavior  of  liquids  at  rest,  identifies  the characteristics of liquids in motion, and explains the  operation  of  basic  hydraulic  components. Chapter  3  discusses  the  qualities  of  fluids acceptable for hydraulic systems and the types of fluids  used.  Included  are  sections  on  safety precautions  to  follow  when  handling  potentially hazardous   fluids,   liquid   contamination,   and control   of   contaminants. Chapter  4  covers  the  hydraulic  pump,  the component   in   the   hydraulic   system   which generates  the  force  required  for  the  system  to perform   its   design   function.   The   information provided  covers  classifications,  types,  operation, and  construction  of  pumps. Chapter 5 deals with the piping, tubing and flexible  hoses,  and  connectors  used  to  carry  fluids under pressure. Chapter 6 discusses the classification, types, and  operation  of  valves  used  in  the  control  of flow,  pressure,  and  direction  of  fluids. Chapter  7  covers  the  types  and  purposes  of sealing   devices   used   in   fluid   power   systems, including  the  different  materials  used  in  their construction.  Additionally,  the  guidelines  for selecting,  installing,  and  removing  O-rings  are included. Chapter 8 discusses the operation of devices used to measure and regulate the pressure of fluids and  to  measure  the  temperature  of  fluids. Chapter  9  describes  the  functions  and  types of reservoirs, strainers, filters, and accumulators, and  their  uses  in  fluid  power  systems. Chapter 10 discusses the types and operation of  actuators  used  to  transform  the  energy generated by hydraulic systems into mechanical force  and  motion. Chapter 11 deals with pneumatics. It discusses the origin of pneumatics, the characteristics and compressibility of gases, and the most commonly used gases in pneumatic systems. Also, sections are included to cover safety precautions and the potential  hazards  of  compressed  gases. Chapter  12  identifies  the  types  of  diagrams encountered in fluid power systems. This chapter also discusses how components of chapters 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10 are combined to form and operate together as a system. A  glossary  of  terms  commonly  used  in  fluid power  is  provided  in  appendix  I.  Appendix  II provides  symbols  used  in  aeronautical  mechanical 1-1


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