might be placing the spoil material might be an area for
other construction tasking. Excavating at a jobsite must
be a well-thought-out plan.
Safety precautions that apply when you operate
front-end loaders, backhoes, and excavators are as
. Clear the immediate area of personnel or
obstructions before starting the engine.
. Keep the bucket as close to ground level as
possible when transporting loads on grades or slopes.
. Never operate any control from any position
except in the operators seat.
. Be extra careful when working on banks or
. Always keep the machine in gear when going
down steep grades. Never coast or freewheel.
. Drive at speeds slow enough to ensure safety and
complete control especially over rough terrain.
. Reduce speed when making turns or applying
. Always lower the lift arms or boom to the ground
or block them securely before performing any service
or when leaving the machine unattended.
. Never dismount the loader, backhoe, or
excavator when it is in motion.
. Never permit anyone to ride on the equipment.
. Do not oil, lubricate, or make adjustments when
the engine is running or the bucket is raised and
. Never refuel when the engine is running.
. Do NOT smoke when refueling.
. Never operate in a closed area; provide proper
. Do not wear loose fitting clothing which may
catch in moving parts.
. Always wear seat belts, steel toe safety shoes,
hard hats, gloves, and other required personal protective
A ditcher, despite its name, is seldom used for
digging a ditch, which is a slot cut in the earths surface
and left open. The ditcher is a mechanical excavator
used to dig trenches, which is a temporary cut in the
earth for underground utilities, such as pipelines and
conduit to handle water, fuel, electric cable, and sewage.
Once these materials are placed, the trench is covered.
Additionally, the ditcher may also be used to dig footers
for building foundations.
All ditchers have bucket teeth (fig. 9-64). The
ditcher teeth cut the earth and play a major role in how
Figure 9-64.-Two basic bucket teeth designs.