The next pass to make is the spreading pass
(fig. 10-27). The blade and circle are shifted back under
the grader frame.
While the grader straddles the
windrow, the toe of the blade is positioned inside the
front tire, and the heel is positioned to side cast the
material outside the rear tandem tires. Depending on the
amount of material, the spreading operation may require
several passes. After spreading the material, the ditch
cut, shoulder pickup, and spreading pass are performed
until the desired depth of ditch is completed.
When the backslope of the ditch needs to be cut
(fig. 10-28), position the circle and the blade with the
heel resting at the bottom of the foreslope, so the
material flows inside the right rear tandem tires. The toe
of the blade should be forward toward the right front tire.
The top of the wheels is leaned toward the backslope.
When the ditch is to have a plain V-bottom, you now
have to perform a clean-up pass on the foreslope to
remove the material from the backslope cut. After the
foreslope is clean, perform a shoulder pickup and a
spreading pass to finish the ditching operations.
Flat-Bottom Ditch Cut
When a flat-bottomed ditch is required, proceed as
Starting at the foreslope of the original V-ditch (A),
as shown in figure 10-29, use the ditch-cutting
procedures to cut another V-ditch. After the V-ditch is
completed, the next step is to make a flat cut in the
bottom of the ditch. This is performed by placing the
complete length of the blade in the ditch. The toe is
positioned at the base of the backslope (B), and the heel
is positioned to side cast the windrow inside the rear
Figure 10-28.-Backslope cut.
tandem tires (C). This operation moves the material to
the foreslope of the second V-ditch. To remove the
material from the foreslope, perform the procedures
used when removing material from a V-ditch.
The crown, or slope, of the road from the centerline
of the road toward the shoulders provides drainage to
the ditch. For crowning, angle and adjust the blade to
conform to the specified angle of the crown. The
material is side tasted in windrows from the shoulders
of the road up toward the center line.
When the road has a ditch on each side, make the
first pass down the length of one shoulder. When the
length of the pass warrants, turn around and proceed
down the length of the opposite shoulder with the blade
Figure 10-27.-Spreading pass.