Safety precautions that apply to graders are as
. Keep hands, feet, and clothing away from
l Clothing worn by the operator should be
relatively tight and belted. Do not wear loose jackets,
shirts, sleeves, or other items of clothing because of the
danger of catching them in moving parts.
l Before starting the engine, always check the
service brakes and the parking brake to ensure they are
in proper working condition.
. Do not use the steering wheel as a handhold when
getting on and off the grader.
l Keep hands, floors, and controls free from water,
grease, and mud to ensure nonslip control.
. Never attempt to start or operate the grader
except from the operators station.
. Always keep the grader in gear when going down
steep hills or grades.
. When transporting or driving on a road or
highway at night or during the day, use accessory lights
and devices for adequate warning to the operators of
other vehicles. In this regard, check local government
. Never drive too close to the edge of a ditch or
. Do not leave the engine running while making
adjustments or repairs unless specifically
. Never refuel when the engine is running. Do not
smoke while filling the fuel tank or servicing the fuel
. Never leave the grader unattended with the
l Do not oil, grease, or adjust any part of the grader
while it is in motion.
. Check for faulty wiring or loose connections.
s Keep a firm grip on the steering wheel at all times
when speed is increased.
. Do not allow anyone near the grader while the
driver is in the seat with the engine running.
. Reduce speed before turning or applying brakes.
Drive at speeds slow enough to ensure your safety,
especially over rough ground.
l Do not operate the grader so fast on hillsides or
curves that you may tip over.
c When you are operating your grader, be sure your
path ahead is clear to avoid collision with other
. Watch for overhead wires. Never touch wires
with any part of the grader.
. Do not use the grader as a battering ram.
. Keep the working area as level as possible.
l Never allow anyone to work under a raised blade
or other attachment.
. Do not leave the blade or other attachment in the
raised position when it is not in use. Always lower it to
l Be sure bystanders are clear of the grader before
lowering or moving the blade.
. Park the grader on level ground or across the
. Remove all trash accumulation from the engine
and the operators station daily.
. Wear any required personal protective equipment.
Scrapers are designed for self-loading, hauling, and
spreading material on long-haul earthmoving
operations. Scrapers are most efficient when operated
in light and medium materials that are nearly free of
roots, stumps, and boulders. Heavy or consolidated
materials require ripper-equipped dozers to rip open the
surface and assist loading operations by pushing the
scraper through the cut to achieve maximum loading.
The dozer pushing the scraper is referred to as a push
Scrapers are built with open tops to make them
suitable for loading by crane clam shell, conveyor, or
front-end loader. The types of scrapers used in the NCF
are equipped with either a single engine or twin engine
(fig. 10-33). On twin-engine scrapers, the one engine in
the front is used to pull, and the one in the rear is used
Another type of scraper used in the NCF is the
paddle wheel scraper (fig. 10-34), also called the