The finish nail (fig. 3-50, view C) is made from
referenced in this section. The d next to the
finer wire than either the common wire or box nail.
numbers in the size column is the accepted
Its length per penny size is the same. The finish
abbreviation of the word penny, as used in nail
nail has a small head that may be set below the
sizing. It reads two penny, three penny, and so on.
surface of the wood. The small hole that remains
may be puttied or waxed over. You should use
A few rules should be followed when you use
finish nails where appearance is important.
nails. For maximum holding power, a nail should
be at least three times as long as the thickness of
The duplex nail (fig. 3-50, view D) is a
wood it is to hold. Two-thirds of the length of the
temporary fastener so it has two heads. The lower
nail is driven into the second piece for proper
head, or shoulder, is driven securely home to give
anchorage. One-third provides the necessary
maximum holding power. The upper head projects
anchorage of the piece being fastened. Nails should
above the surface of the wood to make it easy to
be driven at a slight angle toward each other. Place
them carefully to provide the greatest holding
power. Nails driven with the grain do not hold as
The wire gauge brad (fig. 3-50, view E) comes in
well as nails driven across the grain. A few nails of
several gauges for the same length of brad. It
proper type and size, properly placed and driven,
ranges in length from 3/8 inch to 6 inches. It is the
will hold better than many nails poorly placed.
most suitable brad for pattern work. Remember
Nails are the cheapest and easiest fasteners to use.
that for brads, the higher the gauge number, the
smaller the body diameter. Length and wire gauge
The common wire nail (fig. 3-50, view A) has a
flat head. It ranges in size from 2d (1 inch long) to
identify its size. For example, 112 means 1 inch
60d (6 inches long). The box nail (fig. 3-50, view B)
long and made of 12-gauge wire (0.105 inch), while
has the same length per penny size as the common
1 1/2--15 means 1 1/2 inches long and made of
wire nail. It has a lighter head and smaller
15-gauge wire (0.072 inch).
diameter. In structural carpentry where appearance
is not important, you should use both the common
wire and box nail.
Several factors dictate the use of wood screws
rather than nails and may include the type of
material being fastened and the holding power
requirements. Other factors could be the finished
appearance desired and limits to the number of
fasteners used. Using screws rather than nails is
more expensive in time and money, but their use is
often necessary to meet specifications.
The main advantages of screws are they provide
more holding power and tighten easily to draw the
items fastened securely together. They are also
neater in appearance if properly driven and may be
withdrawn without damaging the material. The
common wood screw is made from unhardened
s t e e l , stainless steel, aluminum, or brass.
Unhardened steel or brass screws are normally used
in the pattern shop. Wood screws are threaded
from a gimlet point for about two-thirds the length
of the screw. They have a slotted or Phillips head
designed to be driven by a screwdriver.
Wood screws (fig. 3-51) are classified according
to head style. The most common types are flat
Figure 3-50.--Nails and brads.
head, oval head, and round head, both in slotted
and Phillips heads.