Wounds are classified according to their general
methods of administering artificial ventilation: mouth-
condition, size, location, how the skin or tissue is
to-mouth and mouth-to-nose.
broken, and the agent that caused the wound.
For additional information on performing artificial
ventilation, refer to Standard First Aid Training Course,
When you consider the manner in which the skin or
tissue is broken, there are four general kinds of wounds:
abrasions, incisions, lacerations, and punctures.
When there is a complete stoppage of heart
function, the victim has suffered a cardiac arrest. The
Abrasions are made when the skin is rubbed or
signs include the absence of a pulse, because the heart
scraped off. Rope bums, floor burns, and skinned knees
is not beating, and the absence of breathing. In this
or elbows are common examples of abrasions. There is
s i t u a t i o n , the immediate administration of
usually minimal bleeding or oozing of clear fluid.
correct procedures greatly increases the chances of a
Incisions, commonly called cuts, are wounds made
CPR consists of external heart compression and
with a sharp instrument, such as a knife, razor, or
artificial ventilation. The compressions are performed
broken glass. Incisions tend to bleed very freely because
by pressing the chest with the heel of your hands, and
the blood vessels are cut straight across.
the lungs are ventilated either by mouth-to-mouth or
mouth-to-nose techniques. To be effective, CPR must
be started within 4 minutes of the onset of cardiac
Lacerations are wounds that are torn, rather than
cut. They have ragged, irregular edges and masses of
torn tissue underneath. These wounds are usually made
by blunt forces, rather than sharp objects. They are
often complicated by crushing of the tissues as well.
CPR should not be attempted by a
rescuer who has not been properly trained.
Improperly done, CPR can cause serious
damage to a victim. Therefore, CPR is
Punctures are caused by objects that penetrate some
NEVER practiced on a healthy individual.
distance into the tissues while leaving a relatively small
For training purposes, a training aid is used
surface opening. As a rule, small punctures do not bleed
instead. To learn CPR, you should take an
freely; however, large puncture wounds may cause
approved course from a qualified CPR
severe internal bleeding.
A puncture wound can be classified as penetrating
or perforating. A perforation differs from a penetration
in that it has an exit as well as an entrance site.
For additional information on administering CPR,
refer to Standard First Aid Training Course,
For additional information on the treatment of
wounds refer to Standard First Aid Training Course,
A wound, or breaking of the skin, is another
problem that could be the result of an electrical shock.
You could accidentally suffer an electrical shock, which
The first-aid methods that are used to stop serious
could cause a loss of balance. This could result in a
bleeding depend upon the application of pressure.
minor or serious injury. Because you could be in a
Pressure may be applied in three ways: (1) directly to
critical situation to save someone's life, or even your
the wound, (2) at key pressure points throughout the
own, you should know the basics of first aid.
body, and (3) with a tourniquet.