SHAPERS, PLANERS, AND ENGRAVERS
CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
Identify and explain the use of shapers.
Identlfy and explain the use of planers.
Explain the use of pantographs.
moved by a rocker arm that is driven by an adjustable
In this chapter we will discuss the major types of
shapers, planers, and pantographs (engravers), and their
crankpin secured to the main driving gear. Quick return
individual components, cutters, and operating
of the ram is a feature of a crank shaper. In a geared
shaper, the ram is moved by a spur gear that meshes with
principles and procedures. A shaper has a reciprocating
single-edged cutting tool that removes metal from the
a rack secured to the bottom of the ram. In a hydraulic
shaper, the ram is moved by a hydraulic cylinder whose
work as the work is fed into the tool. A planer operates
on a similar principle except that the work reciprocates,
piston rod is attached to the bottom of the ram. Uniform
tool pressure, smooth drive, and smooth work are
and the tool is fed into the work. A pantograph is used
features of the hydraulic shaper.
primarily to engrave letters and designs on any type of
material. The material can be flat, concave, convex, or
There are many different makes of shapers, but the
essential parts and controls are the same on all. When
As with any shop equipment you must observe all
you learn how to operate one make of shaper, you will
posted safety precautions. Review safety precautions in
not have any trouble learning to operate another make.
Figure 9-1 is an illustration of a crank shaper found in
your equipment operators manual and any chapters of
Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH)
shops in many Navy ships and shore repair facilities.
Program Manual for Forces Afloat, OPNAV
Instruction 5100.19B, that pertain to the equipment.
This section covers the construction and operation
of the main components. They are the main frame
A shaper has a reciprocating ram that carries a
assembly, drive assembly, crossrail assembly, toolhead
cutting tool. The tool cuts only on the forward stroke of
assembly, and table feed mechanism. (See fig. 9-2.)
the ram. The work is held in a vise or on the worktable,
MAIN FRAME ASSEMBLY.--The main frame
which moves at a right angle to the line of motion of the
assembly consists of the base and the column. The base
ram, permitting the cuts to progress across the surface
houses the lubricating pump and sump, which provide
being machined. A shaper is identified by the maximum
forced lubrication to the machine. The column contains
size of a cube it can machine; thus, a 24-inch shaper will
the drive and feed actuating mechanisms. A dovetail
machine a 24-inch cube.
slide is machined on top of the column to receive the
ram. Vertical flat ways are machined on the front of the
column to receive the crossrail.
There are three distinct types of horizontal shapers:
DRIVE ASSEMBLY.--The drive assembly
crank, geared, and hydraulic. The type depends on how
consists of the ram and the crank assembly. These parts
the ram receives motion to produce its own
convert the rotary motion of the drive pinion to the
reciprocating motion. In a crank shaper the ram is
reciprocating motion of the ram. By using the