Table 2-1.--Constants for Locating Centers of Flange Bolt
pitch circle line from A at point 8; from B at points 2
and 3; from C at 4 and 5; and from D at 6 and 7. (See
distance AE and gauge the pitch chord for accuracy.
Then, finish the layout as described in the preceding
Mathematical Determination of Pitch Chord
In addition to the geometric solutions given in the
preceding paragraphs, you can determine the spacing
of valve flange bolt hole centers by simple
desired number of bolt holes. The diameter of the
pitch circle multiplied by the constant equals the
length of the pitch chord. The constants for specified
Here is an example of the use of the table.
Suppose a flange is to have 9 bolt holes laid out on a
pitch circle with a diameter of 10 inches. From the
table, select the constant for a 9-hole flange. The
pitch diameter (10 inches) multiplied by the
appropriate constant (.342) equals the length of the
pitch chord (3.420 inches). Set a pair of dividers to
measure 3.420 inches, from point to point, and step
coat the surface plate with blue and move the
off around the circumference of the pitch circle to
workpiece over this surface. The blue will stick to the
locate the centers of the flange bolt holes. Note,
high spots on the workpiece, revealing the areas to be
however, that the actual placement of the holes in
relation to the vertical and horizontal bisectors is
workpiece surface that are blue and check again.
determined separately. (This is of no concern if the
Continue this process until the blue coloring shows on
layout is for an unattached pipe flange rather than for
the entire surface of the workpiece. To reduce
a valve flange.)
frictional "drag" between mating finished scraped
surfaces, rotate the solid surfaces so you make each
SCRAPING AND BLUING
series of scraper cuts at an angle of 90° to the
preceding series. This gives the finished scraped
Scraping produces a surface that is more accurate
surface a crosshatched or basket weave appearance.
in fit and smoother in finish than a machined surface.
It is a skill that requires a great deal of practice before
you become proficient at it. You need patience, sharp
tools, and a light "feel" to scrape a surface until the fit
is smooth and uniform.
Some of the tools you will use for scraping will be
similar to files without the serrated edges. They are
available either straight or with various radii or curves
used to scrape an internal surface at selected points.
Other scraper tools may look like a paint scraper,
possibly with a carbide tip attached. You may find
that a scraper you make from material in your shop
will be best for the job at hand.
When you scrape a flat surface, you'll need a
Figure 2-34.--Checking a surface.
surface plate and nondrying Prussian blue. Lightly